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  • “To achieve an effective, efficient and coordinated National Statistical System (NSS) that will ensure sustainable production and disseminating of demand driven official statistics for national development”.

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The 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) was designed to provide data for monitoring the population and health situation in Zambia.

The 2007 ZDHS is the fourth Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zambia. The objective of the survey was to provide up-to-date information on fertility, family planning, childhood mortality, infant and child feeding practices, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviour. The survey also included testing for syphilis and HIV.

The survey is the second ZDHS that includes information on violence against women and testing for syphilis and HIV.

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Education of Survey Respondents
The majority of Zambians have some education, though only 10% of women and 17% of men have completed secondary or higher. Urban residents and those living in Copperbelt and Lusaka are more educated than those living in rural areas or Western and Eastern.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Fertility in Zambia has increased slightly since previous DHS surveys. Currently, women in Zambia have an average of 6.2 children, up from 5.9 in 2001-02 and 6.1 in 1996.


Childhood mortality is decreasing in Zambia. Currently, one in every nine children in Zambia dies before his or her fifth birthday. The infant mortality rate for the five years before the survey (2002-2007) is 70 deaths per 1,000 live births and the under-five mortality rate is 119 deaths per 1,000 live births. For the period from 1998-2002, infant mortality was 95 and under-five mortality was 158.



Maternal Mortality

The ZDHS 2007 asked women about deaths of their sisters to determine maternal mortality—deaths associated with pregnancy and childbearing. The 2007 maternal mortality rate for Zambia is 591 per 100,000 live births.




About six in ten children under 18 (58%) live with both of their parents. One in five children under 18 are not living with either biological parent. Fifteen percent of children have one or both parents dead, while 19% are considered orphans and/or vulnerable. Over half of orphans (53%) do not live with all their siblings.



Domestic Violence

Almost half of women (47%) in Zambia have suffered from physical violence at some point since age 15. One-third of women suffered from acts of violence during the past 12 months. This proportion is significantly higher for divorced/separated/widowed women (41%) than single women (11%). One in ten women have ever experienced sexual violence.



HIV Prevalence

The 2007 ZDHS included HIV testing of over 10,000 women and men age 15-49. Seventy-seven percent of women aged 15-49 and 72% of men 15-59 agreed to be tested for HIV.

In Zambia, HIV prevalence has decreased slightly. The HIV prevalence of 14.3%, according to the 2007 ZDHS, represents a slight decrease from the 15.6% prevalence observed in the 2001-02 ZDHS. In the 2007 survey, 16.1% of women and 12.3% of men are positive for HIV.

By comparison, in 2001-02, 17.8% of women and 12.6% of men had HIV. However, none of these decreases are statistically significant.

People living in urban areas are at higher risk of infection than those living in rural areas (20% versus 10%).

HIV estimates vary by age, with men and women age 35-39 most likely to be HIV-positive.

HIV prevalence also varies dramatically by province, ranging from 6.8% in Northern to 20.8% in Lusaka.

HIV prevalence is slightly higher among uncircumcised men than among circumcised men (13% and 11%).

HIV prevalence is particularly high among widows and those who are divorced or separated; 53% of widowed women and 63% of widowed men are HIV-positive.